By James M. Lindenberger
This e-book provides an updated translation of seventy-nine letters and fragments, almost the whole corpus of surviving letters in Aramaic and Hebrew right down to the time of Alexander, omitting purely the main fragmentary and the main formulaic. This comprises the correspondence from historical Jewish writers at Yavneh-Yam (7th Century), Arad and Lachish (6th), and Elephantine (5th). There also are administrative letters from Persian bureaucrats, inner most advertisement and kinfolk correspondence from Egypt, and different scattered letters from Assyria, Egypt, Philistia, and Idumaea. additionally integrated are brief notes in Edomite, Ammonite, and Phoenician (one in every one language). The revised version is supplemented via an extra 9 texts, a few of them released very lately, no longer present in the 1994 version. Translations are actually supplied with line numbers, and a few were enhanced within the gentle of contemporary experiences. each one letter seems along the unique textual content in sq. script. short introductions set each one staff of letters into its ancient and social context. The association inside every one language crew is approximately chronological.
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Extra info for Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters
Similarly, no. 10 is addressed “to my son Shelomam from your brother Oshea” (outside address: “to my brother Shelomam son of Oshea from your brother Oshea”). In no. 7, we find Tabi addressed as Banitsar’s “mother” in the outside address but as his “sister” in the letter proper. Number 11 uses “mother-son” language in the greeting, but a different woman, Menahemet, is identified by the writer as “my mother” in line 5. “Mama” (nos. 4–5) is a personal name or nickname. Clearly the “brothers” in no.
3–8) include a blessing in the name of Ptah, the chief divinity of Memphis, where the senders live. The letters in chapters 2–5 come from the period when the kings of Persia dominated the ancient Near East. A sketch of this era, focusing on the satrapy of Egypt, with which most of the letters are associated, helps place them in their proper historical and social setting. E. ) was the founder of the Persian Empire, known as the “Achaemenid” Empire after the name of Achaemenes, the traditional ancestor of the ruling house.
That [ . . ] 3of mine, give it to Pakhnum son of Nabudelah so he can make [ . . ] . [ . . ] 4they will sue him. If there is any money, give it to him. ]. 5 I am writing to [greet you]. Greetings to my mother Menahemet, [to . . and to] 6Yahuyishma. 7 Address: [To] my [mother] Yahuyishma daughter of [ . . ] . 11a. Berlin Papyrus 23000 39 Grain Shipments 11a. Berlin Papyrus 23000 (ca. ˜lyz ˚z¿ apla rg_ab yqlj πa hl d‚b‚[y ybx yzw hb ˜[fml 3 πsk ytya hdy l[ •rk πsk ytyaw ytybl lbwm‚l rwb[b ˜tnml ?