Advances in spectroscopy for lasers and sensing by Baldassare Di Bartolo; Ottavio Forte; International School

By Baldassare Di Bartolo; Ottavio Forte; International School of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy.; North Atlantic Treaty Organization

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World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1-76. 10. M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Nanolayer Characterization through Wavelength Multiplexing a Microsphere Resonator”, Opt. Lett. 30, 510-512(2005). 11. J. P Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whisperinggallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 1429-1430 (1999). 1. 2. 18 Stephen Arnold and Ophir Gaathon 12. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I.

At this point it may be possible to count label-free molecules one at a time rather than wait for a full monolayer to form. Each step in increased wavelength will be directly proportional to the polarizability αѽaҏ nd therefore to the molecular weight. It may be unnecessary for molecules to land on the surface. If they simply flow through the evanescent field of a mode, then the frequency shift will pulse, and molecular counting and analysis becomes possible. Of course, there are noise problems associated with this idea.

Particularly interesting for medical applications is the UV organic laser which can be scaled to micrometer sizes, together with a solid state pumping source. Moving more toward higher photon energy, x-ray lasers have been the dream of a whole generation of researchers after the discovery of the first laser emission in 1960. But the very difficulties, which delayed the laser for six years after the first maser, were for the x-ray spectral region much worst. Indeed, the spontaneous emission was several order of magnitude bigger with respect to the visible spectrum, and reversing the population for amplification was not an easy task.

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