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Additional info for Advances in corrosion control and materials in oil and gas production: papers from EUROCORR '97 and EUROCORR '98
Advances in Corrosion Control and Materials in Oil and Gas Production 20 69O9 09 20000 18000 Discount rate ~ 15% 1146000000 -! o ' ~ • 8% v qL. Q.. o... • 8000 . . . . i. o... 0 I 1 I 3 I 5 7 Years from start-up I I 9 11 Fig. 14 Net present value offailure, for afull pipeline replacement plus 30 days deferred production. 9. C o r r o s i o n Management In c o n t r a s t w i t h C R A p i p e l i n e s , t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of a c a r b o n steel p i p e l i n e in w e t , c o r r o s i v e g a s s e r v i c e c a n o n l y b e a c h i e v e d if a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e s are t a k e n to e n s u r e t h a t t h e c o r r o s i o n c o n t r o l p r o g r a m m e is o p e r a t e d as d e s i g n e d .
SAC Y ~. ~ Y0 u ....... "~- dl ,"-.. ,~ ~ , = ~ ~ 1 , ~ = "'" 02 ~. x Fig. 9 Effect of SAC on vortex geometry. _-2" Y0]" '" ............. , u dl "; =' 02 x 35 Modelling the Probability of FILC in CO 2 Corrosion of Steel In the absence of SAC the critical wall shear stress is given by eqn (11a): (11a) T,w(crit ) = Kv" Oy K v = "tw(crit) (21) y In the presence of SAC the critical wall shear stress can be estimated using eqn (22): Kv T, w(crit,SAC) = ~ " (~ y(SAC) KsAc (22) from which _ T'w(crit,SAC) • K S A C Oy(SAC ) Kv - (23) Therfore KsA c can be evaluated from experimental data in the following way: T,w(crit) , KSA C = (~y(SAC) ~ T,w(crit,SAC ) C~y (24) Equation (20) can be applied to correlate turbulence effects in terms of critical wall shear stresses with the fracture stress of corrosion product scales for the case in which the energy of a single burst is high enough to cause a microcrack in the scale.
05 mm/y. The corrosion management system should include procedures for minimising these times. For example, to keep D below I week per year, the operation of the pumps and the level in the corrosion inhibitor tanks needs to be controlled at least twice per week (this approach is similar to that discussed in relation to eqns (1) and (2)). Maintaining this degree of control will normally require some automatic monitoring system, such as 'pump off' and 'level low' alarms. Full stand-by redundancy is recommended for all critical components, for example two pumps interlocked for automatic switch-on.