By Gerd Gigerenzer
The place do new rules come from? what's social intelligence? Why do social scientists practice senseless statistical rituals? This very important booklet is set rethinking rationality as adaptive pondering: to appreciate how minds deal with their environments, either ecological and social.
Gerd Gigerenzer proposes and illustrates a daring new learn software that investigates the psychology of rationality, introducing the recommendations of ecological, bounded, and social rationality. His path-breaking assortment takes learn on considering, social intelligence, creativity, and decision-making out of an airy global the place the legislation of common sense and likelihood reign, and areas it into our actual global of human habit and interplay. Adaptive considering is accessibly written for basic readers with an curiosity in psychology, cognitive technological know-how, economics, sociology, philosophy, synthetic intelligence, and animal habit. It additionally teaches a realistic viewers, comparable to physicians, AIDS counselors, and specialists in felony legislations, the right way to comprehend and converse uncertainties and hazards.
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Extra resources for Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World (Evolution and Cognition)
Before the second half of the century, the mind was not yet a computer. However, a new incarnation of the Enlightenment view of intelligence as a combinatorial calculus was on the horizon. From Computer to Mind The computer is a member of an important family of artifacts called symbol systems, or more explicitly, physical symbol systems . . The hypothesis is that a physical symbol system . . has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent action. (Herbert Simon, 1969, p. 26) What has been called in retrospect the cognitive revolution in American psychology of the 1960s is more than an overthrow of behaviorism by mentalist concepts.
French engineer Gaspard Riche de Prony organized the French government's titanic project for the calculation of 10,000 sine values to the unprecedented precision of 25 decimal places and some 200,000 logarithms to 14 or 15 decimal places during the French Revolution. Inspired by Adam Smith's praise of the division of labor, Prony organized the project in a hierarchy of tasks. At the top was a handful of excellent mathematicians, including Adrien Legendre and Lazare Carnot, who devised the formulae; in the middle were 7 or 8 persons trained in analysis; at the bottom were 70 or 80 unskilled persons who knew only the rudiments of arithmetic and who performed millions of additions and subtractions.
Herbert A. Simon's Heuristics of Discovery and the Tools-to-Theories Heuristic Herbert A. , Langley, Simon, Bradshaw, & Zytkow, 1987) explicitly reconsidered the possibility of a logic of discovery. For example, a series of programs called BACON has "rediscovered" quantitative empirical laws, such as Kepler's third law of planetary motion. How does BACON discover a law? Basically, BACON starts from data and analyzes them by applying a group of heuristics until a simple quantitative law can be fitted to the data.